Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Liopropomatinae
Etymology: Liopropoma: Greek, leio = smooth + Greek, pro = in front of + Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 45 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938)
(total): 6 - 7;
(total): 12. Body yellow-orange with 5 wide black lines along side bordered by red above and below. Large black spot on second dorsal fin; similar spot on anal fin; caudal fin has 2 black spots connected by black bar.
A solitary species (Ref. 26340) inhabiting deep recesses of coral reefs. Common, but secretive and rarely seen (Ref. 9710). The maximum size for this species is about 8 cm standard length or 100 mm TL (value from Ref. 26938) (P.Heemstra, pers.comm. 12/09).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 28, mean 27.2 °C (based on 200 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 135 [72, 302] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.801 [0.455, 1.408] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.5, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.19 [0.11, 0.33] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.2 [14.0, 55.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 145 [45, 480] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.63 [1.04, 2.49] mg/100g (wet weight);