Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; dH range: 12 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 3 - ? m. Tropical; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 23°N - 3°S
Asia: Thailand to Sumatra and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30857); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 9497)
Found most often in freely flowing rivers and streams and seasonally on floodplains. Although reported to be non-migratory, it definitely does participate in local trophic migrations to and from inundated forests (Ref. 12693). Swims in shoals and are only fished in the Mekong especially during upstream (Jan.-Feb.) and downstream migration (Jun.-Jul.). Eats parenchyma and seeds of chaulmoogra tree (Hydnocarpus) falling into the streams; reported to become intoxicated and behaves in a peculiar manner and is believed to be toxic. Northern Laotians refrain from eating this fish but those in the South do. Cambodians and Vietnamese prize it highly (Ref. 2091). Eating flesh of the fish can cause nausea in humans (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Assuming standard cyprinid reproduction. Replace ASAP.
Roberts, T.R., 1989. The freshwater fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci. 14:210 p. (Ref. 2091)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=3-4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.4 [19.1, 279.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.85 [0.73, 4.61] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.3, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.135, 0.694] g/100g ; Selenium = 74.6 [29.2, 217.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.6 [5.3, 75.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.47 [1.00, 2.19] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.