Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 24°S - 30°S
Africa: Orange-Vaal River system.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 51.8, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 82.5 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 22.2 kg (Ref. 7248)
Is the largest scale-bearing indigenous fish species in southern Africa. Adults prefer flowing water in deep channels or below rapids, but the species does well in dams. Mainly a predator, initially taking insects and small crustaceans but piscivore above 30 cm FL. Breeds in mid-summer to late summer over gravel beds in running water. May live for 12 or more years (Ref. 7248). Imported for food in US and Canadian markets (Ref. 4537)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00503 - 0.01732), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 15.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 76.8 [41.9, 136.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.62 [1.03, 2.53] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [17.3, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.531 [0.264, 1.003] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.1 [9.2, 65.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 85.4 [27.7, 259.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.01 [0.72, 1.47] mg/100g (wet weight);