Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.5; dH range: 15 - ?; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 24°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059)
Africa: middle and upper Congo River system from Pool Malebo (Ref. 44985) up to the Luapula (Ref. 95585), in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola and Zambia. Also in Lake Tanganyika (Ref. 41590) and associated rivers such as the Ruzizi (Ref. 27626). Further also known from the Ogowe and Nyanga basins in Gabon (Ref. 81639).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2801)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: mouth inferior; lips weakly or moderately developed; two pairs of well developed barbels, anterior pair about half as long as posterior pair which is about one eye diameter in length; last simple ray of dorsal fin flexible, not serrated, measuring 0.75x HL; lower jaw reaching to, or beyond, anterior margin of eye; black stripe on each lobe of caudal fin (Ref. 81639).
Inhabits large rivers (Ref. 4967).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00201 - 0.00949), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .