Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
(Shellears) > Kneriinae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: Kwango drainage (middle Congo River basin) in Angola (Ref. 1878). Also reported from the Kunene and (upper) Zambezi systems (Ref. 13332), although presence in the latter is questionable in Ref. 120641. Presence in the Okavango (Ref. 13332) and southern Kasai (Ref. 45616) uncertain, although considered present in the southern Congo basin in Angola in Ref. 120641.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3565)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 12. Diagnosis: body height less than head length (Ref. 3022), the latter 5.5-6 times in total length (Ref. 1878, 3022). Eye lateral, well visible from below (Ref. 1878), its diameter 3-3.66 times in head length (Ref. 1878, 3022). Dorsal fin origin behind pelvic fins (Ref. 1878, 3022). In males, snout with spine-like tubercles (Ref. 1878, 83772). Ventral profile of lower jaw slightly ventrally curved, except in the middle where it is more or less dorsally curved; more than 100 scales on lateral line; blackish grey band from the back of the head to the caudal fin (Ref. 83772). Lateral line origin curving dorsally above opercular organ, the latter not overlying the anterior lateral line (Ref. 88971). Black spot at base of pelvic and pectoral fins; 2 black spots at base of anal fin (Ref. 3022, 83772). Blackish brown spots just above and below lateral line (Ref. 83772).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .