Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 110 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, Mauritius, Reunion. Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559), Taiwan, and from the Society, Cook, Marquesan, Tuamoto, Pitcairn and Hawaiian islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3921)
soft rays: 5. Anterior part of dorsal fin resembles a small fish, the fin also has a spot between spines 1-2 or 1-3 (Ref. 4313). Lachrymal bone with 2 spines over maxillary, first points forward, second broad, pointing out and to rear; suborbital ridge without spines except one at rear before opercle; preopercular spines short, usually only 3 developed; no supplemental preopercular spine at base of first spine; a dark spot on the spinous dorsal fin between spines 1 or 2 and 3; and vertical scale rows of about 65-75 (Ref. 10482).
Found on sand and rubble under ledges of seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). The dorsal fin mimics a tiny fish and is used as a lure (Ref. 9710). Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1985. Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.5 - 28.3, mean 27 °C (based on 299 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00603 - 0.02627), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.5 [43.0, 204.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.7 [0.4, 1.8] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.2, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.263 [0.114, 0.737] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.4 [14.7, 70.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 169 [56, 474] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);