Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 9°N - 3°S, 105°E - 119°E (Ref. 188)
Western Central Pacific: South China Sea (western Kalimantan, Sarawak).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 49. Body moderately deep, belly with 25 + 11, total 36 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting. Dorsal fin origin at about midpoint of body; anal fin origin under dorsal fin base. Swim bladder with a single long tube passing back down right side of body above anal fin base. Not toothed hypo-maxilla between hind tip of pre-maxilla and blade of maxilla.
Occurs in coastal waters, perhaps entering estuaries. More data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.2 - 29, mean 28.8 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00403 - 0.01972), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .