Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic. Tropical; 1°N - 12°S
South America: Amazon River basin (Pará and Manáos [= Manaus] to Iquitos, Peru).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111115); max. published weight: 98.39 g (Ref. 111115)
soft rays: 47 - 52. Body moderately elongate, belly with 25 or 26 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting; gap between hind tip of pre-maxilla and blade of maxilla a ligament, not a toothed bone. Dorsal fin origin well before midpoint of body; anal fin long. Resembles species of Pellonula, which have a distinct toothed hypo-maxilla between the hind tip of the pre-maxilla and the blade of maxilla (Ref. 188). Grayish above, yellowish to silvery below (Ref. 37032).
Occurs in rivers, apparently not entering sea. More specimens and data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00528 - 0.01648), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .