Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 55 - 310 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Western Central Atlantic: western and southern Gulf of Mexico and from Colombia to mouth of the Amazon River.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 54.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37039)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 227 - 245. Light yellowish brown, with small brown spots dorsally; vertical fins edged in black posteriorly (Ref. 37039).
Minimum depth reported from Ref. 37039.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McEachran, J.D. and J.D. Fechhelm, 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1112p. (Ref. 37039)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.8 - 25.2, mean 20 °C (based on 118 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00089 (0.00036 - 0.00223), b=2.98 (2.76 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .