Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Hippoglossinae
Etymology: Hippoglossus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335); stenolepis: From the Greek hippos (horse), glossa (tounge), steno (narrow), lepis, (scale). In 1904, a Russian scientist by the name of P.J. Schmidt first proposed the scientific name based on anatomical differences such as scale shape, pectoral fin length, and body shape which he thought distinguished it from the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). (Ref. 94075).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1200 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate; 73°N - 42°N, 138°E - 123°W (Ref. 54557)
North Pacific: Hokkaido, Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the southern Chukchi Sea and Point Camalu, Baja California, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 258 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); 267.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 363.0 kg (Ref. ); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 55701)
Found on various types of bottoms (Ref. 2850). Young are found near shore, moving out to deeper waters as they grow older (Ref. 6885). Older individuals typically move from deeper water along the edge of the continental shelf where they spend the winter, to shallow coastal water (27-274 m) for the summer (Ref. 28499). Feed on fishes, crabs, clams, squids, and other invertebrates (Ref. 6885). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Vinnikov, K.A., R.C. Thomson and T.A. Munroe, 2018. Revised classification of the righteye flounders (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae) based on multilocus phylogeny with complete taxon sampling. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 125:147-162. (Ref. 122998)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.3 - 5.7, mean 1.6 °C (based on 454 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00398 - 0.01000), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.2; K=0.05; tm=5-20; tmax=55).
Prior r = 0.11, 95% CL = 0.06 - 0.18, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 8.89 [2.92, 21.69] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.202 [0.078, 0.561] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.391 [0.169, 0.895] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.3 [14.7, 110.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.8 [2.5, 41.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.412 [0.179, 0.699] mg/100g (wet weight);