Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes
(Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae
(Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: heteros (Gr.), different; odontos (Gr.), tooth, referring to pointy teeth (for clutching prey) at front of jaws, different than rounded molar-like teeth (for grinding hard-shelled invertebrates) at the back. (See ETYFish); mexicanus: -anus (L.), belonging to: Mexico, referring to its distribution in the Gulf of California along the Mexican coast to at least Oaxaca (and perhaps to Peru). (See ETYFish).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 54547). Tropical; 31°N - 18°S, 115°W - 80°W
Eastern Pacific: Mexico and from Costa Rica to Colombia, probably Ecuador and Peru (Ref. 43278)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Found on littoral continental waters, on rocky and sandy areas from close inshore down to at least 20 m depth. Reported to reach 165 cm (Ref. 37955). Feeds on crabs and demersal fishes including midshipman (Porichthtys) (Ref. 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 37955). Utilized as fishmeal.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.6 - 26.9, mean 23.2 °C (based on 30 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00169 - 0.00857), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).