Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually 4 - 60 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 27115); 33°N - 5°S, 98°W - 37°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda and southern Florida, USA to southeastern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626)
soft rays: 12. Juveniles yellow with silvery blue stripe along side. Super males (terminal males), have black vertical bar behind tip of pectoral fin, merging with broad black area on upper side, continuing to top of caudal peduncle and upper caudal fin. One of the easiest wrasses to identify at all its stages (Ref. 26938).
Commonly found on shallow and deep reefs and exposed rocky ledges. Feeds on various invertebrates. Forms leks during breeding (Ref. 55367). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Constantly on the move but easily attracted by divers. Generally of no interest to fisheries because of its small average size (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 7.3 cm TL (Ref. 55367).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28, mean 27 °C (based on 394 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00577 - 0.01734), b=3.14 (2.99 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .