Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 13608), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 33°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda through the Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Most abundant member of the genus Haemulon along the eastern coast of Florida (Ref. 26938).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 85.60 g (Ref. 118626)
soft rays: 9. Silvery white with a mid-lateral yellow stripe running from eye to a large round black spot at base of caudal fin; a second narrower yellow stripe on back above lateral line (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits seagrass beds, sand flats, and patch reefs (Ref. 9710). Forms schools (Ref. 5521). Feeds on small crustaceans, mollusks, other benthic invertebrates, plankton, and algae (Ref. 3798). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 3798).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 28.1, mean 27.2 °C (based on 912 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01221 - 0.01710), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18-0.35; tmax=9; Fec=29,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 42.1 [20.9, 87.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.767 [0.409, 1.492] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.3 [18.2, 22.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.249 [0.122, 0.485] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.5 [6.5, 30.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 115 [36, 363] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.89 [0.51, 1.49] mg/100g (wet weight);