Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 55 m (Ref. 27549). Deep-water
Southwestern Atlantic: Venezuela, including Trinidad and Tobago, to Brazil (Rio de Janeiro).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.0, range 34 - 50 cm
Max length : 137 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4439); common length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 0.00 g
Broad, diamond-shaped ray with a very short tail lacking a dorsal spine (Ref. 26938). Snout protruding. Front edges of disk concave. Tail with low dorsal and ventral finfolds and 3 - 4 dark crossbars (Ref. 7251). Upper surface gray, brown, light green or purple with round spots. Lower surface white (Ref. 6902).
Prefers neritic waters of the continental shelf and
usually found on soft bottoms. May enter brackish
estuaries or hyper-saline lagoons (Ref. 5217). Feeds on
fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587); other crustaceans and clams
(Ref. 27549). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Generally
marketed salted (Ref. 5217).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Yokota, L. and M.R. de Carvalho, 2017. Taxonomic and morphological revision of butterfly rays of Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) species complex, with the description of two new species (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae). Zootaxa 4332(1):1-74. (Ref. 116399)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.8 - 27.9, mean 25 °C (based on 544 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00324 - 0.00851), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 10.4 [1.9, 33.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.327 [0.078, 0.929] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [16.6, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.508 [0.151, 1.540] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.4 [3.8, 55.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.23 [2.14, 33.05] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.389 [0.188, 0.877] mg/100g (wet weight);