Teleostei (teleosts) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335); pharaonis: Named for the pharaohs, rulers of ancient Egypt, whose realm included the Red Sea; also referring to the regal appearance of this handsomely marked fish..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 121606). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea, also from Socotra Island outside the Gulf of Aden.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121606)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 123 - 128. This species is distinguished from by the following characters: head and jaws slender; teeth sharp, slender, and smooth; intermaxillary teeth in one peripheral and one medial series; maxillary teeth in 2 rows, the outer row with 14-20 small teeth, while the inner row with 0-6 large, depressible teeth; dentary teeth in 1 row with 2 large fixed teeth at anterior end, followed by a single row of 15-20 small teeth, and 1 large, depressible tooth just behind the large anterior teeth; total vertebrae 123-128. Colour brown with irregular dendritic pale markings, not interconnected or chain-like; the dorsal fin with oblique, conspicuous, parallel streaks (on tail) (Ref. 121606).
Usual habitats of this fish are crevices and shelters of fringing seaward reefs, and may be seen out of shelter at night only. Female specimens as small as 22.3 cm were found with large eggs. Males appear to mature at larger sizes than females (Ref. 121606).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G., S.V. Bogorodsky, A.O. Mal and T.J. Alpermann, 2019. Review of the moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 4704(1):1-87. (Ref. 121606)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00048 (0.00025 - 0.00090), b=3.28 (3.12 - 3.44), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).