Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335); breedeni: Named for Vic. E, Breeden..
More on authors: McCosker & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 40 m (Ref. 30874), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 30404). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: widespread in the Indian Ocean, ranging to some oceanic locations in the Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30874)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 128 - 131. Distinctive black patch mark below eye (Ref. 30404). Body brown, speckled darker; dark anus and gill opening (Ref. 3257).
Inhabits clear seaward reefs of oceanic islands to a depth over 25 m (Ref. 9710). Common on reef walls and steep slopes with holes (Ref. 30404). Inhabits porous coral rock which it shares with swarms of anthiases (Ref. 37816). Feeds on fishes and octopi (Ref. 89972). Territorial and will bite when provoked (Ref. 30404). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 9710.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Castle, P.H.J. and J.E. McCosker, 1986. Muraenidae. p. 165-176. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3257)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 30404)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.8, mean 27.6 °C (based on 310 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00047 (0.00025 - 0.00088), b=3.28 (3.12 - 3.44), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.3 [16.3, 52.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.428 [0.244, 0.727] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [17.4, 22.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.136 [0.063, 0.366] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.2 [25.4, 89.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 119 [34, 394] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.757 [0.526, 1.066] mg/100g (wet weight);