Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 32 m (Ref. 128398). Subtropical; 30°N - 14°N, 61°E - 100°E
Asia: rivers of India and Bangladesh affluent to the Bay of Bengal (chiefly the Ganges and Brahmaputra systems and the Mahanadi River of Orissa). Reported from Nepal (Ref. 9496) and Pakistan (Ref. 41236).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1479)
spines: 0. Body fairly deep; 26 to 29 scutes along belly. A single triangular pectoral axillary scale; depressed tip of dorsal fin to behind vertical from anal fin origin. Hind margin of scales smooth. Dark blotch behind gill opening, often followed by a series of spots along flank. Gill rakers fine and numerous, increasing with size of fish (100 to 280 at 4 to 16 cm standard length).
Adults are found in middle and upper reaches of rivers. Also occur in ponds, beels, ditches and inundated fields (Ref. 1479). Minimum depth assumed based on it being a surface feeder, maximum depth based on study site in Bangladesh (Ref. 128398). More data needed.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00779 - 0.01020), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.14 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 10,800).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 473 [246, 934] mg/100g ; Iron = 5.9 [3.3, 11.3] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [15.7, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.659 [0.370, 1.164] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.2 [10.9, 60.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.6 [3.2, 35.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.79 [1.70, 5.13] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.