Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Gonostomatidae
Etymology: Gonostoma: Greek, gonio = angle + Greek stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 50 - 1352 m (Ref. 74511), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 41°N - 40°S, 98°W - 110°W
Worldwide. Eastern Atlantic: Madeira (Ref. 4769), Canary Islands (Ref. 6808) and Cape Verde (Ref. 27000); Senegal to Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 4463). Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters (Ref. 4463), including the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 27768). Eastern Pacific: California Current region (Ref. 35800). South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4463)
soft rays: 26 - 31. Dark dorsally, silvery finish on translucent flanks; fin rays colorless; black pigment at base of each dorsal and anal ray (Ref. 3991). Branchiostegal rays: 11-12 (Ref. 35800). Longer trunk and shorter tail (Ref. 37473).
Mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). Exhibit diel vertical migrations, juveniles and adults mainly at 300-600 by day and at 50-200 by night (Ref. 4463, 58302). Feed on copepods and euphausiids (Ref. 4769). Photophores developing in fishes over 12-20 mm SL (Ref. 4769). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35800).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz, 1990. Gonostomatidae. p. 283-292. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4463)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.6 - 17.3, mean 11.1 °C (based on 943 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00141 - 0.00937), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.13 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .