IN genus Rhinobatos in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. November 2013: Ref. 94485).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 119 m (Ref. 9909). Subtropical; 29°N - 18°S, 49°E - 156°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Thailand and Viet Nam. Possibly occurring in China, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo), Philippines, New Guinea, and Bougainville Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 280 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Ranges from the intertidal to offshore continental shelves down to 119 m (Ref. 9909). A carnivorous fish that feeds on large shellfishes (Ref. 58784). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Produces 6-10 pups a litter (Ref.114953). Biology little known (Ref. 9909). Utilized where it occurs but details lacking (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00234 (0.00159 - 0.00346), b=3.02 (2.91 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).