Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 9002). Subtropical; 25°S - 44°S, 145°E - 180°E
Southwest Pacific: Australia and New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Large schools form in the vicinity of rocky outcrops and in harbors under jetties. Juveniles found in estuaries, mainly in seagrass areas. Secretive during the day, among rocks and hiding in caves and ledges (Ref. 9002). A popular angling fish in southern Queensland and New South Wales (Ref. 33839).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gomon, M.F., C.J.M. Glover and R.H. Kuiter (eds.), 1994. The fishes of Australia's south coast. State Print, Adelaide. 992 p. (Ref. 33839)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.4 - 23.3, mean 18.3 °C (based on 103 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00671 - 0.03258), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.6 [26.5, 89.8] mg/100g; Iron = 0.798 [0.455, 1.435] mg/100g; Protein = 17.5 [16.4, 18.7] %; Omega3 = 0.18 [0.09, 0.35] g/100g; Selenium = 29 [11, 66] μg/100g; VitaminA = 8.77 [1.90, 38.37] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.936 [0.647, 1.418] mg/100g (wet weight);