Teleostei (teleosts) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Fundulidae
(Topminnows and killifishes)
Etymology: Fundulus: Latin, fundus = bottom; a peculiar name for a topminnow, coined for a bottom species of Atlantic coast being "the abode of the fundulus mudfish" (Ref. 45335); zebrinus: From the Latin word Fundus=bottom, the habitat; zebrinus=like a zebra (in reference to the vertical bars or stripes) (Ref. 79012).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ?; non-migratory. Tropical; 20°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 46°N - 29°N
North America: Mississippi River and Gulf Slope basins in the USA from northern central Montana to central Wyoming and south to Colorado River, Brazos River, Galveston Bay and Rio Grande drainages in Texas (Ref. 5723). Distinct from Fundulus kansae which is found in the drainages north of the Red River (Ref. 55961).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139); common length : 6.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits shallow sandy runs, pools, and backwaters of headwaters, creeks and small to medium rivers. Tolerates extremely alkaline and saline streams, and often found where few other fishes can survive. Buries headfirst in sand and orients itself with only mouth and eyes are visible. This habit may protect the fish from intense sunlight or may help avoid predators, detect potential prey, or stream desiccation. 10 cm max TL (Ref. 5723). Not a seasonal killifish. Is easy to maintain in the aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poss, S.G. and R.R. Miller, 1983. Taxonomic status of the plains killifish, Fundulus zebrinus. Copeia 1983(1):55-67. (Ref. 35647)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00291 - 0.01803), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).