Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 91762). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: from northern Red Sea, to the Mediterranean (immigrant).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91762)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10 - 11;
Vertebrae: 52 - 53. This species is distinguished by the following: D 19-22; A 10-11; gill-rakers 13-15 + 33-36 (total 47-51); vertebrae 52-53; origin of pelvic fins about one-third eye diameter posterior to a vertical at rear end of dorsal fin base; colour when preserved in alcohol has the centre of scales on dorsal half of body blackish, the edges pale grey (pale edges progressively narrower posteriorly), ventral half of body abruptly silvery white; colour when fresh is iridescent blue-green dorsally on body, dark pigmentation as in alcohol preserved specimens, shading through bronze to silvery white on abdomen (Ref. 91762).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
DiBattista, J.D., J.E. Randall and B.W. Bowen, 2012. Review of the round herrings of the genus Etrumeus (Clupeidae: Dussumieriinae) of Africa, with descriptions of two new species. Cybium 36(3):447-460. (Ref. 91762)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5098 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00310 - 0.01170), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 3.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).