Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes
(Sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Etmopteridae
Etymology: Etmopterus: Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve or ethmoides bone + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 220 - 1620 m (Ref. 44037). Deep-water; 29°S - 59°S
Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic: southern Chile, southern Argentina, and the Falkland Islands Reported from off the western Cape coast but the identity of South African specimens is questionable (the correct species may be Etmopterus baxteri Garrick, 1957). Presence in the Western Pacific uncertain (Ref. 31367); but with some first records. Eastern hemisphere records doubtful (Compagno 1999, pers.comm.).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 46 - ? cm
Max length : 75.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 123656)
soft rays: 0. A large, heavy-bodied lanternshark with a big head (Ref. 5578), bladelike unicuspidate teeth in lower jaw and teeth with cusps and cusplets in upper jaw, stocky body, conspicuous lines of denticles on body, conspicuous black markings on underside of body and tail, with tail marking short and not extending far posteriorly (Ref. 247). Dark brown or black in color, possibly darker below (Ref. 26346).
Found on outermost continental shelves and upper slopes (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fish, squid, shrimp and crabs (Ref. 5578). Bioluminescence observed, with the dorsal photophores, flank markings, and brighter pectoral fin and claspers are likely to be used for intraspecific communications and the ventrally emitted light is likely to be used for counterillumination (Ref. 123656). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 10-13 in a litter, size at birth about 18 cm (Ref. 6871). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 247.
Ovoviviparous, with 10-13 in a litter (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm (Ref. 6871). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.7 - 9.2, mean 3.2 °C (based on 174 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00222 - 0.00650), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 8.7 [1.5, 30.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.299 [0.076, 0.773] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.6, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.371 [0.140, 1.099] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.41 [2.50, 28.88] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.6 [9.1, 160.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.359 [0.172, 0.851] mg/100g (wet weight);