Epinephelus fasciatus, Blacktip grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775)

Blacktip grouper
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Epinephelus fasciatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus fasciatus (Blacktip grouper)
Epinephelus fasciatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 160 m (Ref. 5222), usually 20 - 45 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 36°N - 35°S, 22°E - 124°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan and Korea, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), southern Queensland (Australia) and Lord Howe Island.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1238); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 30874)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth 2.8-3.3 in SL (for specimens 10-26 cm SL); head length 2.3-2.6 in SL; flat interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; snout length 4.3-5.1 in HL; preopercle rounded, rear edge serrate, with lower most serrae slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum straight; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2-4 rows of teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 6-8 + 15-17; pyloric caeca 10-16; caudal fin slightly to moderately rounded (Central-Pacific often with truncate caudal fins); ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally above lateral line and on thorax and ventrally on abdomen, with numerous auxiliary scales; nape and dorsoposterior part of head densely covered with minute auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 49-75. Colour variable, ranging from pale greenish grey to pale reddish yellow to scarlet; body often with 5 or 6 faint dark bars, the last on peduncle; body scales (except ventrally) with pale centre and dark rear margin, producing a faint checked pattern; the outer triangular part of interspinous membranes of dorsal fin black (dark red in fish from Western Australia and in some specimens from deep water), with pale yellow or white spot behind tip of each spine (Ref. 39231, 89707, 90102).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in outer reef slopes at depths below 15 m, also occurs in protected bays and lagoons as shallow as 4 m. May also be found down to a depth of 160 m. At Madagascar it feeds night and day on brachyuran crabs, fishes, shrimps, and galatheid crabs (Ref. 6774). In Kenyan waters it feeds on crabs, stomatopods, fishes, ophiuroids, and octopus (Ref. 6448). In the Red Sea, mostly fishes and some crustaceans (mainly crabs) are consumed (Ref. 6699). Readily caught with hook-and-line, spear, traps, and gill nets (Ref. 39231)..

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

This species exhibits a combination of simultaneous and sequential hermaphroditism. Smaller individuals within a social group are simultaneous hermaphrodites, while the largest often lose female function and reproduce exclusively as a male (Ref. 103751).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
FAO - Fisheries: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 1100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01022 - 0.01289), b=3.03 (3.01 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.16).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28.3 [11.7, 59.1] mg/100g; Iron = 0.465 [0.241, 0.959] mg/100g; Protein = 18.4 [16.8, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.144 [0.088, 0.237] g/100g; Selenium = 36.8 [20.0, 66.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 232 [54, 972] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.73 [1.15, 2.43] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.