Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Enteromius: Greek, enteron = intestine + Greek, myo, mys = muscle (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 12°S - 25°S
Africa: Limpopo system, headwaters of Gwai-Zambezi (Zimbabwe), Kwando (upper Zambezi)(Ref. 52193) and Cunene (Ref. 52193, 120641). Also in the rivers Curoca (Ref. 120641) and Quanza (Ref. 11970, 120641) in Angola and the upper Lualaba (upper Congo River basin) in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 45434).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 7248); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 7248)
Naturally occurring in large pools of cooler perennial rivers; thrives in man-made impoundments. An active predator which feeds initially on small planktonic crustaceans and insects; later feeds on small fishes when they are larger. Also feeds on waterlily seeds. Is preyed upon by birds, otters, large catfish and large papermouths. Migrates upstream with the first summer flood to spawn. Matures after 3 years (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00546 - 0.02648), b=2.96 (2.78 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=8.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .