Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 90 m (Ref. 9563), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 26°S - 43°S
Indo-Pacific: Endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7300)
Juveniles live in estuaries (Ref. 33616) while adults occur in estuaries and on inshore and offshore rocky reefs and seagrass beds (Ref. 9563). Found either in large schools, in pairs or as solitary individuals (Ref. 33616). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Reported to have venomous fin spines without associated venom gland (https://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/445#moreinfo).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 20.6, mean 17.7 °C (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 19.9 [8.7, 44.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.287 [0.143, 0.577] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.452 [0.189, 1.071] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.4 [4.1, 34.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35 [7, 164] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.868 [0.538, 1.445] mg/100g (wet weight);