Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Carapidae
(Pearlfishes) > Carapinae
Etymology: Encheliophis: Greek, enchelys, = eel + Greek, ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335). More on author: Tanaka.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal. Deep-water
Northwest Pacific: Japan and Taiwan (Ref. 12711).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34024)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; maxilla adnate or nearly so; cardiform teeth present; branchiostegal membranes partly or completely united; swim bladder with thin terminal membrane or bulb; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone (Ref. 34024). Dentary and palatine with conical teeth; 11-14 vertebrae in front of dorsal fin origin (Ref. 34024).
A rare (Ref. 34024) deep-water species (Ref. 559). Holothurian commensal (Ref. 34024).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.2 - 5.5, mean 3.3 °C (based on 127 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .