Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Elopiformes
(Tarpons and tenpounders) > Elopidae
Etymology: Elops: Greek, ellops = a kind of serpent (Ref. 45335); smithi: Named for David G. Smith, Smithsonian Institution..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical
Western Atlantic: coasts of the Americas, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 83481)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16 - 19;
Vertebrae: 73 - 80. This species is distinguished from Elops saurus in the number of vertebrae 73-80 but usually 75-78 vs. 79-87, often 81-85, respectively (vs. E. senegalensis 67, E. machnata 63-64, and E. hawaiensis 68-70). This species has a lower gill raker count , 10-15 on lower limb of the first arch (vs. E. affinis 16-20 and E. lacerta 17-19) (Ref. 83481).
Occurs in a wide range of salinities; mature adults and early-life history stages in offshore marine habitats and where spawning is presumed to occur; and transforming larvae and subadults in estuaries, as far up as the oligohaline zone, as well as hypersaline lagoons (Ref. 83481).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McBride, R.S., C.R. Rocha, R. Ruiz-Carus and B.W. Bowen, 2010. A new species of ladyfish, of the genus Elops (Elopiformes: Elopidae), from the western Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa 2346:29-41. (Ref. 83481)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5176 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00245 - 0.01290), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .