Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Elopiformes
(Tarpons and tenpounders) > Elopidae
Etymology: Elops: Greek, ellops = a kind of serpent (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous. Tropical; 38°N - 37°S, 22°E - 153°W
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea to Mossel Bay, South Africa and east to India and western Pacific. Africa: Inland waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 118 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); max. published weight: 10.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occurs in coastal waters, but enters lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 4832) [actual freshwater records remain to be confirmed]. Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Young and adults feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 5213). Probably spawn at sea, but the transparent larvae migrate to inshore areas and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 7050). Are voracious carnivores that take fish, squid and shrimp bait (Ref. 3968). Edible, but not tasty and full of bones (Ref. 3968). A total length of 126 cm for this species has been reported from Knysna, South Africa (G. Bernardt, pers. comm., e-mail: email@example.com) .
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M., 1986. Elopidae. p. 155-156. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3968)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.7 - 28.4, mean 26.9 °C (based on 1366 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5176 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00488 - 0.00855), b=3.01 (2.93 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .