Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 55 - 385 m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 20°N, 98°W - 83°W (Ref. 114953)
Western Central Atlantic: northern Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 69.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Mucous pores on ventral surface not so black except mouth. Outer rim of nostril fringed. Pair of small white pores behind each spiracle, smaller whitish pores in 2 rows toward the tail (Ref. 7251). Lack of thorns along the midbelt of the disc from the level of the axils of the pectorals to the vicinity of the spiracles. Interspace between the dorsal fins. Upper surface dark olive brown with many small roundish obscure spots of darker brown on disc. Lower surface jet black (Ref. 6902).
Found on outer continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 114953). Moderately deep water species (Ref. 6902). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Males reaches maturity at ca. 51cm TL, females at ca. 59cm TL; hatching size unknown (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.5 - 23.6, mean 20.2 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .