Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 33°N - 2°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda (Ref. 7251), Florida (USA), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Brazil to 2°S; absent from Bahamas and West Indies (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Found on soft bottom (Ref. 5217). Synchronously hermaphroditic. Good food fish (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Has a well developed accessory reproductive structure (ARS) which consists of a post-ovarian sinus and numerous well-developed villi which project into the sinus from the sinus wall (Ref. 102260).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.1 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 350 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00443 - 0.01878), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .