Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: confusa: Name from Latin 'confusio' in relation to past confusion with other Australasian skates, Zearaja nasuta and Dipturus cerva. More on author: Last.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 18 - 390 m (Ref. 75648), usually 18 - 120 m (Ref. 75648). Temperate; 35°S - 45°S, 142°E - 153°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: off south-eastern Australia
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75648); 69.5 cm TL (female)
Inhabits continental shelf at 20-120 m, rarely found deeper to 390 m. Feeds mainly on crabs, shrimps and other benthic crustaceans. Reproduces throughout the year and reaches maturity at 5-6 years (Ref. 114953). Lengths of adolescent males varied from 41.5-53.4 cm TL, adult males from 49.8-64.9 cm TL; smallest juvenile 22.0 cm TL. Egg cases were observed to be about 5.6-6.9 cm long with a maximum width of about 4.5-5.3 cm TL (Ref. 75648).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., 2008. New short-snout members of the skate genus Dipturus (Rajoidei: Rajidae) from Australian seas. pp. 53-98. In Last, P.R., W.T. White, J.J. Pogonoski and D.C. Gledhill (eds.): Descriptions of new Australian skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) pg. 53-98. CSIRO marine and atmospheric research paper no. 021. (Ref. 75648)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.2 - 27.7, mean 18.1 °C (based on 764 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .