Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: confusa: Name from Latin 'confusio' in relation to past confusion with other Australasian skates, Zearaja nasuta and Dipturus cerva. More on author: Last.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 18 - 390 m (Ref. 75648), usually 18 - 120 m (Ref. 75648). Temperate; 35°S - 45°S, 142°E - 153°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: off south-eastern Australia
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75648); 69.5 cm TL (female)
Inhabits continental shelf at 20-120 m, rarely found deeper to 390 m. Feeds mainly on crabs, shrimps and other benthic crustaceans. Reproduces throughout the year and reaches maturity at 5-6 years (Ref. 114953). Lengths of adolescent males varied from 41.5-53.4 cm TL, adult males from 49.8-64.9 cm TL; smallest juvenile 22.0 cm TL. Egg cases were observed to be about 5.6-6.9 cm long with a maximum width of about 4.5-5.3 cm TL (Ref. 75648).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., 2008. New short-snout members of the skate genus Dipturus (Rajoidei: Rajidae) from Australian seas. pp. 53-98. In Last, P.R., W.T. White, J.J. Pogonoski and D.C. Gledhill (eds.): Descriptions of new Australian skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) pg. 53-98. CSIRO marine and atmospheric research paper no. 021. (Ref. 75648)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.2 - 27.7, mean 18.1 °C (based on 764 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00144 - 0.00663), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .