Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 325 m (Ref. 114953). Temperate; 27°S - 36°S, 150°E - 154°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Pacific: endemic to eastern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 45.5, range 43 - 48 cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 6871, 75154). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules measure 5.7 cm long and 3.2 cm wide (Ref. 41308). Males reaches maturity at 43-48 cm TL. Biology poorly known; probably have suffered population declines in recent years (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.6 - 21.4, mean 20 °C (based on 8 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00143 - 0.00636), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .