Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 500 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 57°N - 5°S, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay (occasionally further north) and southwestern Mediterranean to the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Guinea, possibly even further south.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.8  range ? - 21 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Inhabit various types of bottom but prefers gravel or rubble from 20 to about 500 m depth, abundance varying with depth according to the latitudes. Feed mainly on crustaceans and fish but also takes mollusks (Ref. 4781).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 10 - 16.8, mean 13.5 °C (based on 312 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01097 - 0.01820), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18-0.23).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 68.6 [38.2, 132.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.58, 1.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.5, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.515 [0.289, 0.917] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.8 [16.9, 64.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.6 [4.3, 38.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.672 [0.473, 0.965] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.