Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 450 m (Ref. 3688). Tropical; 38°N - 16°S
Eastern Atlantic: Cape Bojador, Western Sahara to Angola (absent around islands including the Canary Islands). Recently recorded from coast of Cadiz, southern Spain (Ref. 27509).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 32.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 8.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Live in small groups though large individuals may be solitary. Inhabit inshore waters, close to the bottom on various substrates (specially rocky) to 150 m. Adults feed on fish, crustaceans and cephalopods while the young feed on plankton (Ref. 4781). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12.8 - 16.1, mean 14.5 °C (based on 32 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00933 - 0.01479), b=3.03 (3.00 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.17; tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.6 [39.6, 136.0] mg/100g; Iron = 0.952 [0.521, 1.667] mg/100g; Protein = 19.3 [17.8, 20.8] %; Omega3 = 0.285 [0.142, 0.573] g/100g; Selenium = 95.6 [45.6, 178.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 12.3 [4.0, 33.6] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.846 [0.597, 1.229] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.