Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 6808), usually 20 - 35 m (Ref. 27000). Subtropical; 61°N - 35°S, 19°W - 42°E
East Atlantic and the Mediterranean and Black Sea, from the North Sea to Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 69.5 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 123699); max. published weight: 10.2 kg (Ref. 123699)
A coastal species, which enters coastal lagoons, shallow bays and estuaries (Ref. 81259). Found over sandy and muddy bottoms, sometimes near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on bottom fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous, gestation period about 4 months and 4-7 young are produced. Wings marketed smoked, dried-salted, and also used for fishmeal and oil. Harmful to shellfish banks; dangerous to bathers and fishers due to its poisonous spine. Barbed poison spine is a modified denticle that can be 35cm long, shed occasionally and replaced (Ref. 35388). Maximum reported width about 150 cm (Ref. 81259).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9.7 - 26.1, mean 12.2 °C (based on 352 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00475 - 0.00839), b=3.03 (2.95 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.1 [1.7, 252.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.696 [0.063, 8.002] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.3 [18.7, 24.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.263 [0.085, 0.750] g/100g ; Selenium = 22 [4, 104] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.14 [0.64, 75.50] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.591 [0.039, 6.718] mg/100g (wet weight);