Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 90102), usually 2 - 3 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical; 19°N - 23°S
Western Pacific: Philippines, Borneo, Moluccas, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Palau, and Yap Island to Ishigaki Island. Range extended to Mentawai Islands (Indonesia).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
(total): 9 - 10;
soft rays: 11. Small juveniles all black, gradually changing to the blotched pattern of the adult (Ref. 48635). Rear edge of maxilla ends well in front of eye. Prominent pit present behind upper eye. Preopercular spines short, usually 2, subequal. Infraorbital ridge usually smooth over eye. Suborbital ridge largely smooth, bearing 2 spines below eye. Oblique scale rows slanting backward above lateral line more or less equals number of lateral-line scales. Dermal papillae (10-12 in adults) on upper eye, some simple, some branched, longest not reaching supraorbital ridge. Interopercular flap usually broader than long, with several subdivisions.
Lives on sand or rubble substrates of sheltered or semi-exposed reefs to a depth of at least 8 m (Ref. 9710). Well camouflaged on reefs (Ref. 48635). Also found in coral reefs and mangrove area in about 1-12 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.8 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1532 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00330 - 0.01002), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.7 [23.0, 116.0] mg/100g; Iron = 0.631 [0.277, 1.412] mg/100g; Protein = 18.1 [15.9, 20.2] %; Omega3 = 0.116 [0.049, 0.325] g/100g; Selenium = 28 [14, 78] μg/100g; VitaminA = 130 [46, 351] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.916 [0.587, 1.443] mg/100g (wet weight);