Teleostei (teleosts) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Serrasalmidae
(Piranhas and pacus) > Colossomatinae
Etymology: Colossoma: Greek, kolos = short, truncated + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.0 - 7.8; dH range: ? - 20; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - ? m. Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 15°S - 35°S
South America: Amazon and Orinoco basins as wild form; pisciculture form largely distributed in South America.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 108 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); max. published weight: 40.0 kg (Ref. 72380)
This species is usually solitary. Adults stay in flooded forests during first 5 months of flooding and consume but fruits and grains. Young and juveniles live in black waters of flood plains until their sexual maturity. Feeds on zooplankton, insects, snails and decaying plants (Ref. 32894). Used in aquaculture because it can live in mineral poor waters and is very resistant to diseases. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987).
Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm. (Ref. 598)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01190 - 0.04211), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23; Fec=7,000-300,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.6 [17.8, 103.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.51, 2.44] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.28 [0.10, 0.78] g/100g ; Selenium = 125 [45, 312] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [4, 47] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [0.94, 2.22] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.