Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 12298). Tropical; 42°N - 4°N, 94°E - 127°E (Ref. 189)
Western Pacific: East China Sea from Hainan north to Port Arthur (Lu-shun) and perhaps to Korea, although the more northerly records could apply to Coila nasus. A single specimen from Phuket Island, Thailand but the provenance seems doubtful. The four specimens from Kerala, India refer to Coila grayii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108874); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 93170)
soft rays: 80. Body tapering, belly rounded before pelvic fins, with 16 to 19 + 24 to 32 = 41 to 50 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Maxilla long, reaching to or almost to base of first pectoral fin ray. Pectoral fin with 6 filaments; rarely 13 or 14 branched fin rays which are longer than those of pelvic fin.
Inhabits coastal waters and estuaries, but very few data based on reliable identifications (Ref. 189, 11230). Occurs in river (Ref. 12218).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00159 - 0.00454), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 317 [90, 800] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.03 [0.62, 5.54] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [14.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.297 [0.150, 0.594] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.7 [18.5, 90.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.7 [8.2, 74.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.51 [0.72, 3.01] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.