Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); stigmaeus: Citharus for its resemblance to the related genus Citharus; stigmaeus speckled (Ref. 4930).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 549 m (Ref. 27436), usually ? - 91 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 59°N -
Eastern Pacific: Montague Island, Alaska to Bahia Magdalena, southern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on sandy bottom, from near shore to 366 m (Ref. 2850). Little commercial importance because of its small size (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.7 - 15.1, mean 8.9 °C (based on 49 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00335 - 0.01717), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 169 [74, 363] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.44 [0.65, 2.90] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.1, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.274 [0.141, 0.553] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.1 [19.0, 95.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.5 [1.8, 32.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.811 [0.520, 1.232] mg/100g (wet weight);