Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672)
Asia: Afghanistan and Baluchistan southward to Sri Lanka and eastward to Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236)
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Are broadly adapted species occurring in rivers, lakes, ponds, mountain streams and even brackish water (Ref. 12693). Usually hide under the cover of marginal roots and bogwood. Found in quiet, shaded, clear, flowing water with a silt or gravel substrate (Ref. 6028). Can tolerate very stagnant, poorly oxygenated and turbid water. They also tolerate very foul water (Ref. 1479). Feed largely on insects and crustaceans. A small percentage of fish is also included in the diet. Spawn in shallow water with a silt or gravel substrate. Can tolerate a temperature of 36.5°C.
Exhibits mouthbrooding. Eggs hatch in the mouth of the male and either parent may keep the brood in its mouth for protection after hatching. Fry have been found to feed on successive batches of eggs laid by the female.
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, i-xxii + 543-1158, 1 pl. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00568 - 0.01533), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 933).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 112 [59, 246] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.785 [0.520, 1.153] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.7, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.139 [0.071, 0.272] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.7 [11.0, 60.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49.8 [21.1, 112.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.23 [0.86, 1.86] mg/100g (wet weight);