Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Asia: India to China, south to Thailand and Cambodia (Ref. 12693) and Pakistan (Ref. 4833).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 183 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6351); common length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 4833)
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults occur in sluggish or standing water in canals, lakes, and swamps (Ref. 12693). Inhabit waters with submerged aquatic vegetation (Ref. 12693). Usually found only in deep pools in rivers and occasionally in lakes. They enter flooded forest (Ref. 9497). Carnivorous and subsist on fish, frogs, snakes, insects, earthworms and tadpoles (Ref. 1479). There are reports of this species taking water birds, snakes, and rodents. Males are territorial. May bite when caught (Elliot Bligh, pers. comm., 2001).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Builds floating nest of weeds and leaves where the orange-yellow eggs are deposited. Eggs hatch in 36 to 48 hours and fry remain in the nest for about 10 days after hatching. Parents guards the fry for about a month.
Kottelat, M., 2013. The fishes of the inland waters of Southeast Asia: a catalogue and core bibliography of the fishes known to occur in freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2013 (Suppl. 27):1-663. (Ref. 94476)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00454 - 0.01328), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34 [15, 87] mg/100g; Iron = 0.767 [0.514, 1.242] mg/100g; Protein = 18.3 [17.3, 19.4] %; Omega3 = 0.198 [0.080, 0.492] g/100g; Selenium = 54.1 [21.9, 128.7] μg/100g; VitaminA = 55.8 [20.4, 150.1] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.697 [0.481, 1.074] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.