Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Asia: Japan, southern China, Viet Nam, Taiwan and the Philippines.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5258); common length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840)
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults inhabit silty and weedy bottoms of rivers and ponds or lakes (Ref. 9671). Feed on crustaceans, large insects, frogs and fishes (Ref. 5258). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during breeding in shallow freshwater areas amid plants (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00388 - 0.01954), b=2.97 (2.79 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).