Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 128797). Tropical; 36°N - 32°S, 34°E - 133°W
Indo-Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands to the Tuamoto Islands, north to Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4859)
Occur in coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs and less commonly in seaward reefs. Juveniles in harbors and estuaries (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary, in pairs or in small groups. Feed on plant and animal material. Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Can be easily maintained in tanks.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 2807 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01320 - 0.03627), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 119 [61, 183] mg/100g; Iron = 0.908 [0.544, 1.494] mg/100g; Protein = 18.4 [17.2, 19.5] %; Omega3 = 0.111 [0.067, 0.181] g/100g; Selenium = 33.8 [18.7, 64.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 44.1 [12.2, 153.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.71 [1.17, 2.47] mg/100g (wet weight);