Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical; 45°N - 8°N, 99°W - 58°W (Ref. 55370)
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA to Brazil. Larvae are sometimes swept northward which accounts for the sighting of juvenile specimens as far north as Massachusetts, USA during summer months. One record (one specimen, 3 cm) from Musquodoboit Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
(total): 12 - 14;
soft rays: 15 - 17. Body is white with a black bar running across the head through the eye. In juveniles, a second black bar runs from the base of the soft portion of the dorsal fin to the base of the anal fin. The dorsal, caudal and anal fins are either yellow or transparent (Ref. 4855). A narrow yellow bar from gill opening to pectoral base (Ref. 13442).
Inhabit shallow, coral reefs with clear water (Ref. 9626). Develop dusky bands at night. Generally common (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., 1996. Caribbean reef fishes. Third Edition - revised and enlarged. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Hong Kong. 3nd ed. 368 p. (Ref. 13442)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.9 - 28.2, mean 27.2 °C (based on 612 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01544 - 0.04280), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.5 [44.4, 137.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.744 [0.437, 1.217] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.12 [0.07, 0.19] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.2 [17.2, 57.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53.7 [16.2, 173.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.22 [0.83, 1.77] mg/100g (wet weight);