Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 0°N - 30°S
Pacific Ocean: Australia to Pitcairn.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
(total): 12 - 13;
soft rays: 20 - 21. Overall color is blackish with broad rim of yellow on dorsal caudal and anal fins. The snout is yellow with white tips. A black bump is on the forehead.
Found in coral rich to algae-covered rocky areas of lagoon and seaward reefs including estuarine areas. Usually paired (Ref. 9710). Omnivorous and feeds on algae, coral, and small benthic invertebrates. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Maintaining this species in captivity is difficult.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Steene, R.C., 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.9 - 28.1, mean 26.4 °C (based on 448 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01576 - 0.03824), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 88.2 [45.9, 134.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.755 [0.460, 1.237] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.12 [0.07, 0.19] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.1 [16.3, 57.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 44.9 [12.9, 155.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.65 [1.13, 2.36] mg/100g (wet weight);