Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Chaetodipterus: Greek, chaite = hair + Greek, dipteros = with two fins (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 50 m (Ref. 27000), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Recorded from the Niger River estuary.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4338); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
Inhabit sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal waters (Ref. 2683).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1986. Ephippidae. p. 340. In J. Daget, J.P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4338)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 98 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01047 - 0.06310), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .