Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Randall & Ben-Tuvia.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. 5222), usually 15 - 50 m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 31°N - 16°N, 33°E - 43°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Indian Ocean: known only in the Red Sea, from Eilat in the northern Gulf of Aqaba to the Farasan Islands off the southern end of Saudi Arabia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - 19 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 9. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: depth of body 2.6-3.0 in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 in SL; slightly convex interorbital area, width equal to orbit diameter on a fish of 19 cm SL; rounded preopercle, finely serrate posteriorly, lower edge more coarsely serrate; subopercle and interopercle completely serrate; maxilla reaches well past eye (Ref. 089707).
Inhabits dead reefs in silty areas as well as silty lagoons; often found in or near caves as adults, while juveniles are more common in coral rubble areas (Ref. 089707). It could possibly be an aquarium novelty. Ripe females at 17 to 19 cm SL and a mature male at 22 cm SL were reported (Ref. 6699).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: potential
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29.4, mean 28.9 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00585 - 0.02711), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .