Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 30°S, 30°E - 125°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Samoan and Phoenix Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 3420)
Inhabits lagoon, channel, or protected seaward reef slopes, drop offs, coral and rubble areas (Ref. 1602). Usually in pairs or in small groups. Feeds on algae, small crustaceans and worms. Darts from one hiding place to the next. Commonly exported through the aquarium trade (Ref. 48391).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner. Sex reversal is completed in 18-20 days (Ref. 34185, 34248). Also Ref. 103751.
Steene, R.C., 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 3298 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03236 (0.01523 - 0.06876), b=2.89 (2.71 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=13).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 121 [63, 185] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.93 [0.55, 1.53] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.111 [0.066, 0.187] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [18.4, 64.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.5 [12.3, 148.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.69 [1.14, 2.46] mg/100g (wet weight);